Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. It is not yet known which type of swab is more effective in collecting cell samples for anal Pap tests and human papillomavirus tests in men who have sex with men. PURPOSE: This clinical trial is comparing two types of swabs in collecting cell samples for anal Pap tests and human papillomavirus tests in men who have sex with men. Participants undergo a digital rectal examination and high-resolution anoscopy. If lesions are identified, an anal biopsy is performed for histological examination. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study.
The reporting of anal cytology and histology samples: establishing terminology and criteria.
The incidence of anal cancer has increased in frequency in these recent years, mainly in risk groups such as men who have sex with men MSM , HIV-infected patients, immunocompromised men and women, and patients with a history of cervical cancer. Early diagnosis and treatment of precancerous anal lesions should decrease the incidence of anal cancer in the same way as the incidence of cervical cancer has been reduced through screening to diagnose and treat severe cervical lesions.. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of HR-HPV in anal samples from MSM with abnormal cytology, as well as the frequency of cytological lesions and its association with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection..
The rectoanal inhibitory reflex RAIR also known as the anal sampling mechanism , anal sampling reflex , rectosphincteric reflex , or anorectal sampling reflex is a reflex characterized by a transient involuntary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter in response to distention of the rectum. The ability of the rectum to discriminate between gaseous, liquid and solid contents is essential to the ability to voluntarily control defecation. The RAIR allows for voluntary flatulation to occur without also eliminating solid waste, irrespective of the presence of fecal material in the anal canal. The physiological basis for the RAIR is poorly understood,  but it is thought to involve a coordinated response by the internal anal sphincter to rectal distention with recovery of anal pressure from the distal to the proximal sphincter. These cells, which are mediated at least in part by nitric oxide , provide inhibitory innervation of the internal anal sphincter.